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Carrillo, R.A. & Tello, J. (Eds.) (1998). Family Violence and Men of Color: Healing The Wounded Male Spirit. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

This volume reviews research on the prevalence of domestic violence, child abuse and homicide in special populations, including African American, Latino/Chicano, Asian American and Native American. Empirical, clinical, experiential, and narrative approaches provide the reader with a culturally integrated perspective of this controversial subject. Also addressed is the need for more culturally-sensitive research that would result in more effective prevention and intervention efforts in years to come.
The book's writers and editors reached the following conclusions: 1) The field is sorely lacking in research and treatment models to assist in the healing of men of color and domestic violence; 2) The present models not only are inadequate, but many times mirror the violence and control that we are attempting to address; 3) A major root cause of domestic violence in men of color is in the historical oppression and violence that people of color have experienced and continue to experience today; 4) Spirituality is a foundational element needed in the assessment and healing processes in working with men of color; and 5) The integrated inclusion of family/community as part of the healing and ongoing recovery process is essential.

Carrillo, R.A. & Goubaud-Reyna, R. (1998). Clinical Treatment of Latino Offenders. In R. Carrillo & J. Tello (Eds.), Family Violence and Men of Color: Healing the Wounded Male Spirit (pp.53-73). New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

This chapter describes a treatment process for court-mandated Latino immigrant men from Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central America. The model is based on the Hombres Nobles philosophy and pre-columbian, postcolonial theory. The successful treatment of the Latino batterer requires thorough diagnostics, tailored treatment plans, and needs assessments to include the battererís family members. An emphasis on the values of respect, dignity, trust and love articulated in their own language and cultural milieu can contribute to successful rapport building. It is imperative that the effects of colonialization, racism, discrimination, and migration be addressed in treatment. The authors' preference is that the treatment focus be systemic and intergenerational, including as much of the family as possible, whenever it is safe to do so.

Carroll, J.C. (1980). A Cultural-Consistency Theory of Family Violence in Mexican-American and Jewish Ethnic Groups. In Straus M.A.& Hotaling,G.T. (Eds.), The Social Causes of Husband-Wife Violence (pp. 68-81).

This chapter suggests that even cultural norms that do not have a manifest reference to violence also affect the level of violence. For example, norms may structure family roles in a way that increases tension and hostility in the family, even though that is not what is intended. Carroll argues that the elements of a culture tend to be interdependent. He applies this "cultural consistency" theory to Mexican-American and Jewish-American families. For example, Carroll concludes that in Mexican-American families, norms call for male dominance in husband-wife relationships and father dominance in parent-child relationships. As a result, it is not legitimate for a wife or child to contest the husband or father. These norms are systematically linked to a high level of violence. In Jewish families, it is not illegitimate to argue with one's husband, wife, or father. Conflicts are not settled on the basis of ascribed power, but on the basis of discussion and knowledge (either scriptural or scientific). To the extent that this ideal is followed, conflicts can be settled without resorting to violence. While this chapter examines only two ethnic subcultures, it is a promising beginning to the development of a typology of family subcultural norms and their role in permitting or discouraging the use of violence as a means of conflict resolution.

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