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Kantor, G.K. (1997). Alcohol and Spouse Abuse: Ethnic Differences. Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 13, (pp.57-79).

This chapter examines theoretical and empirical evidence on the interplay between ethnicity, structural and cultural factors, and alcohol-related assaults against wives and considers whether there is a differential vulnerability to such assaults among varying ethnic groups. Our review demonstrated that structural factors emerged as dominant in their difference on alcohol-related wife assaults in varying ethnic groups. The empirical evidence, though limited, showed that the linkages between drinking and wife beating are not just a problem of poor ethnic minorities. Heavy drinking per se is associated similarly in Hispanic-American and Anglo-American families. However, we also identified differences among Hispanic subgroups as well as cultural variations in drinking patterns that differentially affected wife assaults. Although data on alcohol-wife assault relationships among African-Americans are extremely limited, the available evidence indicates little or no effect of drinking by African-American men on wife assaults, after taking other socioeconomic variables into account. Empirical evidence did not support the saliency of particular beliefs favoring violence toward women as intrinsic to any one ethnic group. The major cultural differences in alcohol-related cognitions are consistent with the greater legitimation of alcohol-related misbehavior and the acceptance of "machismo" drinking by Hispanic-Americas compared to Anglo-Americans.

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Kantor, G.K., Jasinski, J.L., & Aldarondo, E. (1994). Sociocultural Status and Incidence of Marital Violence in Hispanic Families. Violence and Victims, 9(3), (pp.207-222).

Examined data from the 1992 National Alcohol and Family Violence Survey of 1,970 families, including an oversample of Hispanic families, to determine the incidence of marital violence in the 3 major Hispanic-American subgroups and in Anglo-American families. It also examined how sociocultural status and attitudes toward violence affect wife assaults differentially. Findings show that Hispanic Americans, as a whole, do not differ significantly from Anglo Americans in their odds of wife assaults when norms regarding violence approval, age, and economic stressors are held constant. It was found that being born in the U.S. increases the risk of wife assaults by Mexican- and Puerto Rican-American husbands. However, the presence of norms sanctioning wife assaults within any group, regardless of SES, is a risk factor for wife abuse. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).

Kaufman-Kantor, G., Aldarondo, E. & Jasinsky, J. L., (In Press). Incidence of Alcohol-Related Wife Assaults in Latino and Anglo-American Families. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

This study examines the interplay between ethnicity, structural and cultural factors, and alcohol-related wife assaults. The 1992 National Alcohol and Family Violence Survey (N=1970) was used to evaluate the following: 1) The risk of alcohol-related wife assaults among various Latino and Anglo-American ethnic groups; 2) The relationship between cognitive mechanisms, ethnicity, and wife assault; and 3) The role of cultural factors in mediating the effects of drinking and alcohol expectancies in wife assault. The analyses showed considerable variability in the rates and patterns of alcohol-related assaults among Latino groups. Heavy drinking was associated with higher rates of wife assault in both Latino and Anglo-American families. Aggressive alcohol expectancies and lack of economic resources were also found to be important contributors to the incidence of wife assault across ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses showed that structural factors exert a strong influence on alcohol-related wife assaults in various ethnic groups, net of alcohol consumption, and belief systems. We must recognize the heterogeneity among Latinos in the U.S if we are to understand and reduce the occurrence of alcohol-related wife assaults in these groups. The relationship between drinking and wife assault, however, is clearly not just a problem for Latino groups.

Krishnan, S.P., Hilbert, J.C., VanLeeuwen, D., & Kolia, R. (1997). Documenting Domestic Violence among Ethnically Diverse Populations: Results from a Preliminary Study. Family and Community Health, 20(3), (p.32).

Domestic violence shelters in rural areas with different ethnic populations need to tailor their services accordingly. A survey of three domestic violence shelters in rural New Mexico included Anglo, Hispanic and Native American women. Although the Hispanic women reported more physical violence in their relationship than Anglo women, they were less likely to report the incidents to the police and less likely to seek medical care.

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