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Madriz, E. (1997). Latina teenagers: Victimization, Identity, and Fear of Crime. Social Justice, 24, (pp.39-55).

Examines how Latinas from the ages of 13-19 construct and express their views about crime, criminals, and their possibilities of victimization; based on focus groups and in- depth interviews in New York City (Manhattan, Brooklyn, and the Bronx) and surrounding suburban areas, between October 1994 and the summer of 1995.

Mederos, Fernando (1999). Batterer Intervention Programs: The Past, and Future Prospects. In Shepard, M. & Pence, E. (Eds.), The Coordinated Community Response: the Duluth Experience. (pp. 127-150). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

This chapter focuses on what to do with the offender once he is court-mandated to attend a batterer intervention program within the context of a coordinated community response system. The author states that the intent of his article is "to promote a searching and reflective exploration for activist-practitioners about our work and its meaning." The article provides a background regarding the evolution of batterer intervention programs, a brief overview of the Duluth Model, and a discussion of current controversies and future developments in the field. Among other things, he points out the need for more research in specific areas, as well as the need for the development of culturally and racially specific models for working with Latino, African American, and Asian American men.

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McFarlane, J., Wiist, W., & Watson, M. (1998). Predicting Physical Abuse against Pregnant Hispanic Women. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 15(2), (pp.134-138).

Investigated whether or not symbolic violence and threats of violence by a male intimate were associated with physical violence against pregnant Hispanic women, a cross-sectional interview survey questionnaire was given to 329 pregnant, physically and sexually abused Hispanic women (aged 15-42 years) in urban, public health prenatal clinics. The main outcome measure was physical abuse against pregnant Hispanic women as measured on the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale. Regression analysis showed that symbolic violence and threats of violence by the perpetrator were jointly and independently significantly associated with physical violence. Because symbolic violence is significantly associated with physical violence against pregnant women, screening and early intervention programs should focus on such behavior. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

McFarlane, J. (1998). Characteristics of Sexual Abuse against Pregnant Hispanic Women by Their Male Intimates. Journal of Women's Health, 7(6), (pp.739-745).

Examined the frequency of 6 types of sexual abuse of 329 pregnant Hispanic women (aged 15-42 years) identified during routine prenatal care in public health clinics as physically abused. Threats of abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were measured with the 46-item Severity of Violence Against Women Scale. Comparisons were made between women reporting sexual abuse and those who did not. 105 women reported sexual abuse by their male partner at least once during the prior 12 months. Sexually abused women reported significantly higher levels of threats of abuse and physical abuse than women not sexually abused. Among the sexually abused women, not living with the abuser was correlated with higher threats of abuse, physical violence, and sexual abuse scores. The results of this study support previous research proposing a continuum of violence and possible escalation of violence when an abused woman leaves her abuser. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

McWhirter, P. T. (1999). La Violencia Privada: Domestic Violence in Chile. American Psychologist, 54, (pp.37-40).

Recently, concerted efforts have increased awareness and understanding concerning domestic violence in Chile. Within this decade, a series of government-sponsored research investigations was initiated to understand the prevalence, causes, and consequences of domestic violence. This article describes the current state of Chilean domestic violence in the context of recent historical and political underpinnings. Cultural factors that have influenced the prevalence of the problem are specifically addressed, and legal changes that affect domestic violence in Chile are explicated. The country's increasing awareness and concern for domestic violence are delineated, and both grassroots and governmental responses are outlined. It is hoped that this information provides a concise and comprehensive view of available information about Chilean domestic violence.

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