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Ramirez Hernandez, F.A. (2000). Violencia Masculina en el Hogar: Alternativas y Soluciones. Mexico D.F.: Editorial Pax Mexico, Libreria Carlos Cesarman S.A. (The publisher can be contacted via email at

This book, written in Spanish, examines the relevant issues of domestic violence, focusing on prevalent social and cultural characteristics that may create barriers to the formation of healthy, egalitarian relationships. In the first chapter the author discusses the differences between physical, sexual, verbal and emotional domestic violence. Then, throughout the book he examines the biological, psychological and gender-specific interpretations of the causes of domestic violence, as well as the importance of men accepting responsibility for their behavior. The solutions to the problem of domestic violence are considered and divided into two main areas: the community level and the individual level. At the individual level, he encourages men to commit to the process of changing destructive behaviors and working toward the creation of a new male identity that includes a new kind of relationship with their partner. At the end of each chapter, a series of questions are presented to the male reader to help facilitate the process of self-awareness, the acceptance of responsibility, and the commitment to change. At the community level, the author stresses that it is crucial that when a man is violent in the home, he should be confronted with a strict system of social and legal sanctions. Other collective solutions include influencing and changing the various aspects of education, religion, mass media and cultural traditions that help to perpetuate the problem of domestic violence.

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Rivera, J. (1994). Domestic Violence against Latinas by Latino Males: An Analysis of Race, National Origin, and Gender Differentials. Boston College Third World Journal, 14, (p.231).

Historically, the domestic violence movement has not taken into account the needs of the Latino community. Policies formulated without taking these needs into account may actually place Latinas in danger. Extensive educational efforts must be linked to mandatory arrest policies to inform the community of the policy as well as the duties imposed on the police. Faith and trust must be established by having the police work with well-recognized Latina activists and organizations. Latinas face multiple barriers because of their race, national origin and gender. This multiple discrimination factors into how Latinas experience and respond to domestic violence. Institutional racism and patriarchal structures are interrelated in the experience of Latinas. A reform movement that recognizes these realities and experiences will acknowledge the need to work in unison, but only from a strong base. Latino community-based organizations must be strengthened and provided with the financial and political flexibility to develop and establish domestic violence shelters and services. The Latino community must prioritize domestic violence initiatives. The lives of women and the well-being of an entire community depend on it.

Rivera, J. (1995). The Politics of Invisibility. Georgetown Journal on Fighting Poverty, 3(1), (pp.61-65).

In spite of the rapid growth of the Latino population in the United States, economic equality continues to be a dream for most Latinos. Latina women have carried a great deal of the burden associated with pervasive poverty and inequality. Latinas are invisible to the majority population. When recognized, they are viewed as mothers and not as workers, political participants, and leaders. For Latinas, gender-based violence is part of a spectrum of oppression. Effective legislative solutions must be based on a recognition of Latina-specific realities. Elected and appointed officials may be biased against Latina women, and these biases impact negatively on Latinas seeking assistance in domestic violence situations. Efforts to educate law enforcement personnel must address gender-based discrimination and the challenges confronting Latinas in their efforts to obtain legal protection from abusers. The lack of translation and culturally appropriate services exacerbate the isolation and discomfort Latinas experience when seeking help within the judicial system. There are only a few Latina-based, bilingual, bicultural shelter programs nationally. Advocates, activists, legislators and policy makers face the challenge of designing and enacting legislation that responds to the specific challenges faced by Latinas and other women of color. The politics of invisibility cannot distract policy makers from the goal of providing opportunity and access for all women.

Rivera, J. (1995). Puerto Rico’s Domestic Violence Prevention and Intervention Law and the United States Violence Against Women Act of 1994: The Limitations of Legislative Responses. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, Volume 5.1 (pp. 78-126).

This article considers the current and potential successes, as well as the limitations, of two recently enacted statutes to address intimates’ violence against women: Puerto Rico’s domestic violence law and the United States’ federal anti-violence legislation. Although Puerto Rico’s Domestic Violence Prevention and Intervention Law, commonly referred to as "Law 54," and the United States’ Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) reflect distinct jurisdictional and cultural concerns, they adopt similar remedial goals and mechanisms for addressing violence against women. Both embrace criminalization of domestic violence and prescribe criminal and civil sanctions for the abuser. These legislative efforts have had significant, albeit limited, success in curbing such violence because of deep-rooted gender inequalities in the legal system and legal discourse on domestic violence. This article proposes that effective legislation recognizes each woman’s individuality and her entitlement to full participation in society as an equal. The ultimate success and utility of legislation depends upon its integration into the legal framework and the political discourse on violence against women. Where that integration is tainted by or constructed pursuant to presumptions founded on gender biases about women and violence against women, legislation will face serious obstacles, and will provide only partial remedies for women. However, where the legislative focus is the safety and autonomy of women, a wider range of success is possible. In the case of both laws, their ultimate value can only be measured by the successes and failures of their implementation.

Rivera, J. (1996). The Violence Against Women Act and the Construction of Multiple Consciousness in the Civil Rights and Feminist Movements. Journal of Law and Policy, (pp. 463-511).

This article asserts that while the enactment of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) in 1994 was an undeniable victory for feminism, and as such served as a vehicle for a sophisticated national discourse on violence between intimate partners, the passage of VAWA was also a civil rights victory. VAWA represents an important opportunity for civil rights activists and feminists to identify common goals and philosophies of their respective social and legal reform movements, and an opportunity to convert their doctrines into practice through joint action. The first part of this article provides a brief overview of the common, yet conflicting, history of the civil rights movements. It provides examples of the way the current political climate threatens to dismantle the hard-won advances of both movements and, simultaneously, serves as an impetus to unite the two around common goals. The author concludes by urging civil rights and feminist activists to expand and equalize their collaborative efforts and apply their respective social reform doctrines to each other’s struggles. It further encourages activists to maximize VAWA’s potential for reform by aggressively utilizing its remedies, calling for enactment and enforcement of those provisions which take account of the particular needs of women of color and immigrant women, and combining the two movements’ considerable experience and strengths to end the multiple forms of intimate partner violence against women.

Rivera, J. (1997-1998). Preliminary report: Availability of Domestic Violence Services for Latina Survivors in New York State. In the Public Interest, 16, (pp.1-32).

The writer examines the availability and standard of services provided for Hispanic American women in New York State who are victims of domestic violence. Her analysis is based on preliminary results of the initial stages of a study began in 1997 by the New York State Spanish Domestic Violence Hotline Advisory Committee to determine the availability of existing domestic violence services for Latinas in the state. She discusses the incidence of domestic violence in the Latina community in New York State and the state's domestic violence legislative and regulatory mandates applicable to service providers. In addition, she examines the methodology of the advisory committee's study and its findings and considers possible conclusions that can be drawn from the study and policy concerns that it raises. She points out that domestic violence programs in the state are underfunded and she notes the particular effect of this on Latinas, and she makes various recommendations based on the preliminary findings from the Advisory committee's study.

Rivera, J. (1998). Intimate Partner Violence Strategies: Models for Community Participation. Maine Law Review, Volume 50.283 (pp. 283-308).

This article suggests that the current framework for transforming community norms into legislation and policy directives is unable to provide an avenue for communities historically absent or excluded from the legislative process. While feminist methodology and philosophy seeks to reflect and produce social and legal strategies authentically based on women’s experiences, antiviolence legislation has yet to fully reflect and address the views and priorities of communities of color, and women of color specifically. Part I of this article discusses the need for a different approach to legislative and social policy decision-making, so as to facilitate and maximize community-developed strategies within a democratic government system. This part discusses the difficulty of historically ignored and suppressed communities, specifically the Latino community. Part II of this article describes three existing models for community representation, within a democratic process, for communities that are historically underrepresented and misrepresented in the existing democratic governing structure of the United States. All models are committed to the empowerment of its members/participants and the Latinas who are the subject of the models’ work. The three are leadership models for social reform.

Rodriguez, M., Szkupinski, S. & Bauer, H. (1996). Breaking the Silence: Battered Women’s Perspectives on Medical Care. Archives of Family Medicine, Volume 5 (pp. 150-153). American Medical Association.

This research study sought to determine the barriers to identification and management of domestic violence in the health care system from the battered woman’s perspective. Fifty-one women with histories of domestic violence took part through eight focus groups divided into Latino, White, Asian and African-American participants. Participants from all ethnic groups identified major factors that affect identification and management of battered women in the health care setting. Factors that interfere with patient disclosure included threats of violence from the partner, embarrassment, adherence to gender roles, concerns about police involvement, and lack of trust in the health care provider. The researchers concluded that many battered women experience social, institutional, and provider barriers to obtaining help from the health care system for problems related to domestic violence. Providers, as well as institutions, can overcome these barriers through an understanding of the social context of domestic violence and the victim’s needs. Identification may be improved through a trusting patient-provider relationship and by direct questioning about domestic violence.

Rodriguez, M.A., Bauer, H.M., Flores-Ortiz, Y., & Szkupinski-Quiroga, S. (1998). Factors Affecting Patient-Physician Communication for Abused Latina and Asian Immigrant Women. Journal of Family Practice, 47(4), (p.309).

Domestic violence is one of today's most serious health issues. Abused Latina and Asian immigrant women face unique barriers to the discussion of abuse with health care providers. This research was undertaken to identify any provider-related factors that may affect patient-provider communication for these women. The study participants identified the provider behaviors that demonstrate trust, compassion, and understanding as elements that improve patient-provider communication. In addition, participants wanted providers to initiate discussions about partner abuse.

Rodriguez, R. (1993). Violence in Transience: Nursing Care of Migrant Battered Women. AWHONN’s Clinical Issues in Perinatal and Women’s Health Nursing. [Abstract Forthcoming].

Rodriguez, R. (1994). Forgotten Pain: Migrant Farmworker Women and Domestic Violence. Violence Update, 4(10), (pp.9-11). [Abstract Forthcoming].

Rodriguez, R. (1998). Clinical Interventions with Battered Migrant Farm Worker Women. In Jacquelyn C. Campbell (Ed.). Empowering Survivors of Abuse: Health Care for Battered Women and Their Children, 22, (pp. 271-279). Sage Publications.

This chapter provides a description of the general conditions of migrant life as the foundation for understanding the scope of the problem of domestic violence faced by migrant farm worker women and their families. The author also provides information about the strategies that currently are being development to assist these migrant farm workers. Data regarding the presence of domestic violence in relationships among migrant workers have only recently become available. The development of the Practice-Based Research Network (PBRN) on Family Violence in 1994 has been primarily responsible for the data that have been generated to date. Building on the development of the PBRN, as well as the experiences of the Lideres Campesinas project in California and Unidos Against Domestic Violence in Wisconsin, a new project has been proposed that will create a truly comprehensive approach to practice, research and community outreach for domestic violence among migrant farm worker populations. The author envisions the creation of a safety net for battered migrant farm worker women that will extend beyond traditional health care and other institutional settings and into migrant communities and households. In this way, a woman will be assured of finding knowledgeable, caring individuals who can guide her to resources regardless of her circumstances.

Rodriguez, R. (1999). The Power of the Collective: Battered Migrant Farmworker Women Creating Safe Spaces. Health Care for Women International, 20(4), (pp.417-426). [Abstract Forthcoming].

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