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Saltijeral, M.T., Ramos, L., & Caballero, M.A. (1998). Maritally Abused Women: Types of Violence and its Effects on Mental Health. Salud Mental, 21(2), (pp.10-18).

Explores the types of violence and mental health effects suffered by battered women. Battering is conceptualized as a recurrent pattern of physical, psychological or sexual abuse that a man exerts against his wife, and which manifests itself as emotional states in the wife, such as fear and a sense of vulnerability. The authors review different models that have been proposed to explain the dynamics of this violence and also present the results of research being developed in this area. The authors also interviewed 4 female subjects (aged 29-35 years) who sought help regarding their experiences of violence. The transcripts from the subjectsí audiotaped interviews were analyzed trying to construct some categories related with the types of violence experienced and their effects on mental health. The subjects' testimonies showed that physical violence was present in different actions, such as pushing, punching, and slapping. Sexual violence also was mentioned by women, particularly, when they were forced to have sex after a battering episode. In the case of psychological violence, some of the most frequent types were threats, insults, and humiliations. Subjects also spoke regarding the mental health effects they suffered as a consequence of the violence they endured. ((c) 1998 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved)

Sorenson, S.B. & Telles, C.A. (1991). Self-Reports of Spousal Violence in a Mexican- American and Non-Hispanic White Population. Violence and Victims, 6(1), (pp.3-15).

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  As part of survey of Los Angeles households, 1,243 Mexican Americans and 1,149 non-Hispanic whites were surveyed about their experiences of spousal violence. Questions to assess violence included both perpetration (whether they had been physically violent toward a partner) and victimization (whether they had been the victim of sexual assault by a partner). Over one-fifth (21.2%) of the respondents indicated that they had, at one or more times in their lives, hit or thrown things at their current or former spouse or partner. Spousal violence rates for Mexican Americans born in Mexico and non-Hispanic whites born in the United States were nearly equivalent (20.0% and 21.6%, respectively); rates were highest for Mexican-Americans born in the United States (30.9%). While overall rates of sexual assault were lower for Mexican-Americans, one-third of the most recent incidents reported by Mexico-born Mexican-American women involved the husband and approximate rape.  
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