Klevens, J., Bayón, M. C., & Sierra, M. (2000). Risk factors and context of men who physically abuse in Bogotá, Colombia. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(3), 323-332. Language: English
The purpose of this study conducted in Colombia was to identify risk factors for physical abused caused by male perpetrators, as well as to describe the context of abuse and the role of the female partners. In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 males reported to authorities for child physical abuse and their partners and 44 males and their female partners from the same neighborhood and with a child of the same gender and age as the abused child. Results indicated that abuse occurred more frequently with the mother being present, sometimes involved substance abuse and mental illness, and was related to lack of social support, history of childhood physical abuse, and unrealistic expectations about child. The female partners were more likely to have lower occupational level, higher frequency of dependent personality, a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse, and be herself physically and emotional abused by her spouse. Findings suggest the need to tailor preventive and rehabilitative interventions for abusers.
Klevens, J., Restrepo, O., & Roca, J. (2000). Some factors for explaining resilience amoung young men in Colombia. Revista de Salud Pública, 2(2), 165-172. Language: English with Spanish summary
A secondary analysis of an existing database was used to explore childhood experiences that differentiated men who became delinquent or involved in substance abuse from those who did not (referred to a resilient), despite growing up in equally adverse circumstances. Findings show that resilient men tend to perceive caregiver as affectionate, available, aware of their whereabouts, and able to problem solve on their own more often than men who became delinquent or involved in substance abuse. They were also exposed to less physical abuse and family conflict. These findings appear to be independent of factors such as economic status, mother’s education and age, single parent households, number of siblings, birth order, parental crime and alcohol abuse or separation from parents. Authors point out the need to use prevention strategies that improve the quality of parent-child interactions and mentors.
Klevens, J., Roca, J., Restrepo, O. & Martínez, A. (2001). Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 11, 73-85 Language: English
This study conducted in Colombia sought to establish the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. The study compared 223 arrested male offenders (ages 18-30) and 222 similar community controls from 5 cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviors. Results indicated that offenders were significantly more likely than comparison group participants to report lower parental education, a mother under 18 or over 35 years old, family members involved in crimes, extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishment, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection, and lack of supervision. Findings point to the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality.
Krane, J. L. (1995). Violence against women in intimate relationships: Insights from cross-cultural analyses. Transcultural Psychiatric Research Review, 33, 435-465. Language: English
This article presents a broad overview of the cross-cultural literature on the abuse of women by partners with emphasis on cross-cultural patterns and variations in terms of prevalence, effects, risk factors for abuse and social responses to violence against women. The author provides a good review of prevalence data regarding domestic violence in several Latin American countries as well as specific challenges and risks faced by immigrant women. Although not solely addressing Latinas, the article provides a nice framework from which to explore the issue of domestic violence across cultures and societies.
Krishnan, S.P., Hilbert, J.C., VanLeeuwen, D., & Kolia, R. (1997). Documenting Domestic Violence among Ethnically Diverse Populations: Results from a Preliminary Study. Family and Community Health, 20(3), 32. Language: English
Domestic violence shelters in rural areas with different ethnic populations need to tailor their services accordingly. A survey of three domestic violence shelters in rural New Mexico included Anglo, Hispanic and Native American women. Although the Hispanic women reported more physical violence in their relationship than Anglo women, they were less likely to report the incidents to the police and less likely to seek medical care.