Author's Last Name
Kantor, G.K. (1997). Alcohol and Spouse Abuse: Ethnic Differences.
Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 13, 57-79).
This chapter examines theoretical and empirical evidence on the interplay
between ethnicity, structural and cultural factors, and alcohol-related
assaults against wives and considers whether there is a differential
vulnerability to such assaults among varying ethnic groups. Our review
demonstrated that structural factors emerged as dominant in their difference
on alcohol-related wife assaults in varying ethnic groups. The empirical
evidence, though limited, showed that the linkages between drinking
and wife beating are not just a problem of poor ethnic minorities. Heavy
drinking per se is associated similarly in Hispanic-American and Anglo-American
families. However, we also identified differences among Hispanic subgroups
as well as cultural variations in drinking patterns that differentially
affected wife assaults. Although data on alcohol-wife assault relationships
among African-Americans are extremely limited, the available evidence
indicates little or no effect of drinking by African-American men on
wife assaults, after taking other socioeconomic variables into account.
Empirical evidence did not support the saliency of particular beliefs
favoring violence toward women as intrinsic to any one ethnic group.
The major cultural differences in alcohol-related cognitions are consistent
with the greater legitimization of alcohol-related misbehavior and the
acceptance of "machismo" drinking by Hispanic-Americas compared
Kantor, G.K., Jasinski, J.L., & Aldarondo, E. (1994). Sociocultural
Status and Incidence of Marital Violence in Hispanic Families. Violence
and Victims, 9(3), 207-222.
Examined data from the 1992 National Alcohol and Family Violence Survey
of 1,970 families, including an oversample of Hispanic families, to
determine the incidence of marital violence in the 3 major Hispanic-American
subgroups and in Anglo-American families. It also examined how sociocultural
status and attitudes toward violence affect wife assaults differentially.
Findings show that Hispanic Americans, as a whole, do not differ significantly
from Anglo Americans in their odds of wife assaults when norms regarding
violence approval, age, and economic stressors are held constant. It
was found that being born in the U.S. increases the risk of wife assaults
by Mexican- and Puerto Rican-American husbands. However, the presence
of norms sanctioning wife assaults within any group, regardless of SES,
is a risk factor for wife abuse. ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights
Kanuha, V. (1994). Women of color in battering relationships.
In L. Comas-Díaz & B. Greene (Eds.) Women of Color: Integrating
Ethnic and Gender Identities in Psychotherapy (pp. 428-454). New York:
This chapter provides a critique on the literature on domestic violence
against women and discusses sociocultural factors that impact battered
women of color. The author gives a succinct account of factors specifically
relating to Latina women, including the role of the church, gender roles,
cultural and family loyalty, and other socially constructed expectations.
Kahuna presents the views of battered women of color in terms of help
seeking as well as the problems inherent in the focus of mental health
practitioners on the individual rather than attempting to seek a balance
among the women’s complex needs.
Kaufman-Kantor, G., Aldarondo, E. & Jasinsky, J. L., (In Press).
Incidence of Alcohol-Related Wife Assaults in Latino and Anglo-American
Families. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
This study examines the interplay between ethnicity, structural and
cultural factors, and alcohol-related wife assaults. The 1992 National
Alcohol and Family Violence Survey (N=1970) was used to evaluate the
1) The risk of alcohol-related wife assaults among various Latino
and Anglo-American ethnic groups;
2) The relationship between cognitive mechanisms, ethnicity, and wife
3) The role of cultural factors in mediating the effects of drinking
and alcohol expectancies in wife assault.
The analyses showed considerable variability in the rates and patterns
of alcohol-related assaults among Latino groups. Heavy drinking was
associated with higher rates of wife assault in both Latino and Anglo-American
families. Aggressive alcohol expectancies and lack of economic resources
were also found to be important contributors to the incidence of wife
assault across ethnic groups. Multivariate analyses showed that structural
factors exert a strong influence on alcohol-related wife assaults in
various ethnic groups, net of alcohol consumption, and belief systems.
We must recognize the heterogeneity among Latinos in the U.S if we are
to understand and reduce the occurrence of alcohol-related wife assaults
in these groups. The relationship between drinking and wife assault,
however, is clearly not just a problem for Latino groups.
Klevens, J. (2001). Violencia física contra la mujer en Santa
Fe de Bogotá: Prevalecía y factores asociados [Physical
violence against women in Santa Fe de Bogotá: Prevalence and associated
factors]. Revista Paramericana de Salud Pública [Pan American Journal
of Public Health] 9(2), 78-83.
This article estimates the magnitude of violence against women in intimate
relationships in the capital city of Colombia and identifies associated
risk factors. Data collected from 3,157 female participants in public
health pediatric or obstetric clinics revealed that 26.5% of the sample
reported that their current partner had slapped or pushed them, and
13.3% that they had been hit with an object, beaten, or threatened with
a weapon. Twenty-six percent of participants also indicated that their
partner prohibited them from social activities, work, family planning,
etc. Violence was significantly associated with less schooling, lower
income, number of children, length of live-in relationship with partner,
history of abuse in family of origin, and prohibitions imposed by partner.
The two factors most strongly related to violence were frequency of
conflict with partner and prohibitions imposed by partner.
Klevens, J., Roca, J., Restrepo, O. & Martínez, A. (2001).
Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia. Criminal
Behaviour and Mental Health, 11, 73-85
This study conducted in Colombia sought to establish the importance
of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according
to the published literature from other countries. The study compared
223 arrested male offenders (ages 18-30) and 222 similar community controls
from 5 cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to
abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive
behaviors. Results indicated that offenders were significantly more
likely than comparison group participants to report lower parental education,
a mother under 18 or over 35 years old, family members involved in crimes,
extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe
punishment, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection,
and lack of supervision. Findings point to the importance of family
factors in the risk for adult criminality.
Klevens, J., Bayón, M. C., & Sierra, M. (2000). Risk factors
and context of men who physically abuse in Bogotá, Colombia. Child
Abuse & Neglect, 24(3), 323-332.
The purpose of this study conducted in Colombia was to identify risk
factors for physical abused caused by male perpetrators, as well as
to describe the context of abuse and the role of the female partners.
In-depth interviews were conducted with 45 males reported to authorities
for child physical abuse and their partners and 44 males and their female
partners from the same neighborhood and with a child of the same gender
and age as the abused child. Results indicated that abuse occurred more
frequently with the mother being present, sometimes involved substance
abuse and mental illness, and was related to lack of social support,
history of childhood physical abuse, and unrealistic expectations about
child. The female partners were more likely to have lower occupational
level, higher frequency of dependent personality, a history of childhood
physical and sexual abuse, and be herself physically and emotional abused
by her spouse. Findings suggest the need to tailor preventive and rehabilitative
interventions for abusers.
Klevens, J., Restrepo, O., & Roca, J. (2000). Some factors for
explaining resilience amoung young men in Colombia. Revista de Salud
Pública, 2(2), 165-172.
Language: English with Spanish summary
A secondary analysis of an existing database was used to explore childhood
experiences that differentiated men who became delinquent or involved
in substance abuse from those who did not (referred to a resilient),
despite growing up in equally adverse circumstances. Findings show that
resilient men tend to perceive caregiver as affectionate, available,
aware of their whereabouts, and able to problem solve on their own more
often than men who became delinquent or involved in substance abuse.
They were also exposed to less physical abuse and family conflict. These
findings appear to be independent of factors such as economic status,
mother’s education and age, single parent households, number of
siblings, birth order, parental crime and alcohol abuse or separation
from parents. Authors point out the need to use prevention strategies
that improve the quality of parent-child interactions and mentors.
Krane, J. L. (1995). Violence against women in intimate relationships:
Insights from cross-cultural analyses. Transcultural Psychiatric
Research Review, 33, 435-465.
This article presents a broad overview of the cross-cultural literature
on the abuse of women by partners with emphasis on cross-cultural patterns
and variations in terms of prevalence, effects, risk factors for abuse
and social responses to violence against women. The author provides
a good review of prevalence data regarding domestic violence in several
Latin American countries as well as specific challenges and risks faced
by immigrant women. Although not solely addressing Latinas, the article
provides a nice framework from which to explore the issue of domestic
violence across cultures and societies.
Krishnan, S.P., Hilbert, J.C., VanLeeuwen, D., & Kolia, R. (1997).
Documenting Domestic Violence among Ethnically Diverse Populations:
Results from a Preliminary Study. Family and Community Health, 20(3),
Domestic violence shelters in rural areas with different ethnic populations
need to tailor their services accordingly. A survey of three domestic
violence shelters in rural New Mexico included Anglo, Hispanic and Native
American women. Although the Hispanic women reported more physical violence
in their relationship than Anglo women, they were less likely to report
the incidents to the police and less likely to seek medical care.
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