Author's Last Name
Ramirez Hernandez, F.A. (2000). Violencia Masculina en el Hogar:
Alternativas y Soluciones. Mexico D.F.: Editorial Pax Mexico, Libreria
Carlos Cesarman S.A. (The publisher can be contacted via email at email@example.com).
This book examines the relevant issues of domestic violence, focusing
on prevalent social and cultural characteristics that may create barriers
to the formation of healthy, egalitarian relationships. In the first
chapter the author discusses the differences between physical, sexual,
verbal and emotional domestic violence. Then, throughout the book he
examines the biological, psychological and gender-specific interpretations
of the causes of domestic violence, as well as the importance of men
accepting responsibility for their behavior. The solutions to the problem
of domestic violence are considered and divided into two main areas:
the community level and the individual level. At the individual level,
he encourages men to commit to the process of changing destructive behaviors
and working toward the creation of a new male identity that includes
a new kind of relationship with their partner. At the end of each chapter,
a series of questions are presented to the male reader to help facilitate
the process of self-awareness, the acceptance of responsibility, and
the commitment to change. At the community level, the author stresses
that it is crucial that when a man is violent in the home, he should
be confronted with a strict system of social and legal sanctions. Other
collective solutions include influencing and changing the various aspects
of education, religion, mass media and cultural traditions that help
to perpetuate the problem of domestic violence.
Ramos-Lira, L., Koss, M. P., & Russo, N. F. (1999). "Mexican
American women’s definitions of rape and sexual abuse."
Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(3), 236-265.
Focus groups were conducted with 17 Mexican immigrant women living
in rural Arizona to explore concepts related to rape and sexual abuse.
The women discussed definitions of various forms of unwanted sexual
experiences, their personal knowledge of someone who had been raped
or sexually abused, and their perceptions of the roots of sexual abuse.
Distinctions between rape and violations, child versus adult rape (including
marital rape), motivations for rape, and social factors contributing
to victim silencing were identified. The meaning and perceived impact
of rape reflected the gender relations of the culture. Keeping silent
was a consistent theme, underscoring the difficulties of accurately
assessing rape prevalence in Latinas.
Rivera, J. (1994). "Domestic Violence against Latinas by Latino
Males: An Analysis of Race, National Origin, and Gender Differentials."
Boston College Third World Journal, 14, 231.
Historically, the domestic violence movement has not taken into account
the needs of the Latino community. Policies formulated without taking
these needs into account may actually place Latinas in danger. Extensive
educational efforts must be linked to mandatory arrest policies to inform
the community of the policy as well as the duties imposed on the police.
Faith and trust must be established by having the police work with well-recognized
Latina activists and organizations. Latinas face multiple barriers because
of their race, national origin and gender. This multiple discrimination
factors into how Latinas experience and respond to domestic violence.
Institutional racism and patriarchal structures are interrelated in
the experience of Latinas. A reform movement that recognizes these realities
and experiences will acknowledge the need to work in unison, but only
from a strong base. Latino community-based organizations must be strengthened
and provided with the financial and political flexibility to develop
and establish domestic violence shelters and services. The Latino community
must prioritize domestic violence initiatives. The lives of women and
the well-being of an entire community depend on it.
Rivera, J. (1995). "The Politics of Invisibility." Georgetown
Journal on Fighting Poverty, 3(1), 61-65.
In spite of the rapid growth of the Latino population in the United
States, economic equality continues to be a dream for most Latinos.
Latina women have carried a great deal of the burden associated with
pervasive poverty and inequality. Latinas are invisible to the majority
population. When recognized, they are viewed as mothers and not as workers,
political participants, and leaders. For Latinas, gender-based violence
is part of a spectrum of oppression. Effective legislative solutions
must be based on recognition of Latina-specific realities. Elected and
appointed officials may be biased against Latina women, and these biases
impact negatively on Latinas seeking assistance in domestic violence
situations. Efforts to educate law enforcement personnel must address
gender-based discrimination and the challenges confronting Latinas in
their efforts to obtain legal protection from abusers. The lack of translation
and culturally appropriate services exacerbate the isolation and discomfort
Latinas experience when seeking help within the judicial system. There
are only a few Latina-based, bilingual, bicultural shelter programs
nationally. Advocates, activists, legislators and policy makers face
the challenge of designing and enacting legislation that responds to
the specific challenges faced by Latinas and other women of color. The
politics of invisibility cannot distract policy makers from the goal
of providing opportunity and access for all women.
Rivera, J. (1995). "Puerto Rico’s Domestic Violence Prevention
and Intervention Law and the United States Violence Against Women Act
of 1994: The Limitations of Legislative Responses." Columbia
Journal of Gender and Law, 5(1), 78-126.
This article considers the current and potential successes, as well
as the limitations, of two recently enacted statutes to address intimates’
violence against women: Puerto Rico’s domestic violence law and
the United States’ federal anti-violence legislation. Although
Puerto Rico’s Domestic Violence Prevention and Intervention Law,
commonly referred to as "Law 54," and the United States’
Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) reflect distinct jurisdictional and
cultural concerns, they adopt similar remedial goals and mechanisms
for addressing violence against women. Both embrace criminalization
of domestic violence and prescribe criminal and civil sanctions for
the abuser. These legislative efforts have had significant, albeit limited,
success in curbing such violence because of deep-rooted gender inequalities
in the legal system and legal discourse on domestic violence. This article
proposes that effective legislation recognizes each woman’s individuality
and her entitlement to full participation in society as an equal. The
ultimate success and utility of legislation depends upon its integration
into the legal framework and the political discourse on violence against
women. Where that integration is tainted by or constructed pursuant
to presumptions founded on gender biases about women and violence against
women, legislation will face serious obstacles, and will provide only
partial remedies for women. However, where the legislative focus is
the safety and autonomy of women, a wider range of success is possible.
In the case of both laws, their ultimate value can only be measured
by the successes and failures of their implementation.
Rivera, J. (1996). "The Violence Against Women Act and the Construction
of Multiple Consciousness in the Civil Rights and Feminist Movements."
Journal of Law and Policy, 463-511.
This article asserts that while the enactment of the Violence Against
Women Act (VAWA) in 1994 was an undeniable victory for feminism, and
as such served as a vehicle for a sophisticated national discourse on
violence between intimate partners, the passage of VAWA was also a civil
rights victory. VAWA represents an important opportunity for civil rights
activists and feminists to identify common goals and philosophies of
their respective social and legal reform movements, and an opportunity
to convert their doctrines into practice through joint action. The first
part of this article provides a brief overview of the common, yet conflicting,
history of the civil rights movements. It provides examples of the way
the current political climate threatens to dismantle the hard-won advances
of both movements and, simultaneously, serves as an impetus to unite
the two around common goals. The author concludes by urging civil rights
and feminist activists to expand and equalize their collaborative efforts
and apply their respective social reform doctrines to each other’s
struggles. It further encourages activists to maximize VAWA’s
potential for reform by aggressively utilizing its remedies, calling
for enactment and enforcement of those provisions which take account
of the particular needs of women of color and immigrant women, and combining
the two movements’ considerable experience and strengths to end
the multiple forms of intimate partner violence against women.
Rivera, J. (1997-1998). "Preliminary report: Availability of Domestic
Violence Services for Latina Survivors in New York State." In
the Public Interest, 16, 1-32.
The writer examines the availability and standard of services provided
for Hispanic American women in New York State who are victims of domestic
violence. Her analysis is based on preliminary results of the initial
stages of a study began in 1997 by the New York State Spanish Domestic
Violence Hotline Advisory Committee to determine the availability of
existing domestic violence services for Latinas in the state. She discusses
the incidence of domestic violence in the Latina community in New York
State and the state's domestic violence legislative and regulatory mandates
applicable to service providers. In addition, she examines the methodology
of the advisory committee's study and its findings and considers possible
conclusions that can be drawn from the study and policy concerns that
it raises. She points out that domestic violence programs in the state
are underfunded and she notes the particular effect of this on Latinas,
and she makes various recommendations based on the preliminary findings
from the Advisory committee's study.
Rivera, J. (1998). "Intimate Partner Violence Strategies: Models
for Community Participation." Maine Law Review, 50, 283-308.
This article suggests that the current framework for transforming community
norms into legislation and policy directives is unable to provide an
avenue for communities historically absent or excluded from the legislative
process. While feminist methodology and philosophy seeks to reflect
and produce social and legal strategies authentically based on women’s
experiences, antiviolence legislation has yet to fully reflect and address
the views and priorities of communities of color, and women of color
specifically. Part I of this article discusses the need for a different
approach to legislative and social policy decision-making, so as to
facilitate and maximize community-developed strategies within a democratic
government system. This part discusses the difficulty of historically
ignored and suppressed communities, specifically the Latino community.
Part II of this article describes three existing models for community
representation, within a democratic process, for communities that are
historically underrepresented and misrepresented in the existing democratic
governing structure of the United States. All models are committed to
the empowerment of its members/participants and the Latinas who are
the subject of the models’ work. The three are leadership models
for social reform.
Rodriguez, M., Szkupinski, S. & Bauer, H. (1996). "Breaking
the Silence: Battered Women’s Perspectives on Medical Care."
Archives of Family Medicine, 5, 150-153.
This research study sought to determine the barriers to identification
and management of domestic violence in the health care system from the
battered woman’s perspective. Fifty-one women with histories of
domestic violence took part through eight focus groups divided into
Latino, White, Asian and African-American participants. Participants
from all ethnic groups identified major factors that affect identification
and management of battered women in the health care setting. Factors
that interfere with patient disclosure included threats of violence
from the partner, embarrassment, adherence to gender roles, concerns
about police involvement, and lack of trust in the health care provider.
The researchers concluded that many battered women experience social,
institutional, and provider barriers to obtaining help from the health
care system for problems related to domestic violence. Providers, as
well as institutions, can overcome these barriers through an understanding
of the social context of domestic violence and the victim’s needs.
Identification may be improved through a trusting patient-provider relationship
and by direct questioning about domestic violence.
Rodriguez, M.A., Bauer, H.M., Flores-Ortiz, Y., & Szkupinski-Quiroga,
S. (1998). "Factors Affecting Patient-Physician Communication for
Abused Latina and Asian Immigrant Women." Journal of Family Practice,
Domestic violence is one of today's most serious health issues. Abused
Latina and Asian immigrant women face unique barriers to the discussion
of abuse with health care providers. This research was undertaken to
identify any provider-related factors that may affect patient-provider
communication for these women. The study participants identified the
provider behaviors that demonstrate trust, compassion, and understanding
as elements that improve patient-provider communication. In addition,
participants wanted providers to initiate discussions about partner
Rodriguez, R. (1993). "Violence in transience: Nursing care of battered
migrant women." AWHONN’s Clinical Issues, 4 (3), 437-440.
In this article the author lists several barriers to health care faced
by battered migrant women and offers some strategies for reaching this
high risk population. The author focuses on strategies for nurses working
in migrant clinics such as a commitment to learn the primary language
of the woman, cultural sensitivity, and the need for outreach.
Rodriguez, R. (1994). "Forgotten Pain: Migrant Farmworker Women
and Domestic Violence." Violence Update, 4(10), 9-11.
It’s estimated that about 200,000 to 400,000 migrant farmworker
women are abused in the U.S. Despite theses figures there has not been
a research investigation focusing on domestic violence against migrant
farmworker women. These women not only face the obstacles of such transient
lifestyle but they also face many of the same difficulties as other
Hispanic battered women. The author strongly suggests an intervention
model created by these women in collaboration with service providers.
This model will be culturally and linguistic appropriate and it will
be adapted to fit the needs of the migrant community.
Rodriguez, R. (1998). "Clinical Interventions with Battered Migrant
Farm Worker Women." In Jacquelyn C. Campbell (Ed.). Empowering
Survivors of Abuse: Health Care for Battered Women and Their Children,
22, (pp. 271-279). Sage Publications.
This chapter provides a description of the general conditions of migrant
life as the foundation for understanding the scope of the problem of
domestic violence faced by migrant farm worker women and their families.
The author also provides information about the strategies that currently
are being development to assist these migrant farm workers. Data regarding
the presence of domestic violence in relationships among migrant workers
have only recently become available. The development of the Practice-Based
Research Network (PBRN) on Family Violence in 1994 has been primarily
responsible for the data that have been generated to date. Building
on the development of the PBRN, as well as the experiences of the Lideres
Campesinas project in California and Unidos Against Domestic Violence
in Wisconsin, a new project has been proposed that will create a truly
comprehensive approach to practice, research and community outreach
for domestic violence among migrant farm worker populations. The author
envisions the creation of a safety net for battered migrant farm worker
women that will extend beyond traditional health care and other institutional
settings and into migrant communities and households. In this way, a
woman will be assured of finding knowledgeable, caring individuals who
can guide her to resources regardless of her circumstances.
Rodriguez, R. (1999). "The power of the collective: Battered migrant
farmworker women creating safe space." Health Care for Women
International, 20 (4), 417-426.
This article describes the use of participatory action research (PAR)
methodology to address the problem of domestic violence among migrant
farmworker (MFW) women in California. This article was the product of
a variety of data sources (investigator’s observations, field
notes, informal conversation, written stories from the women, and interviews)
throughout a four-year period. The “power of the collective”
is a central point in this article and is described as the development
of a power base for battered MFW women to support and take care of one
another. Additionally, several stories from two different women are
Root, M. P. (1996). "Women of color and traumatic stress in “domestic
captivity”: Gender and race as disempowering statuses." In
A. J. Marsella, M. J. Friedman, Gerrety, E. & Scurfield, (Eds.) Ethnocultural
Aspects of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Issues, Research, and Clinical
Applications. (pp. 363-387). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological
This chapter provides an interesting historical analysis of the transformation
of gender and ethnicity into class categories. It contains incidence
data regarding different types of violence against women in African
American, Southeast Asian, Native American, and Mexican American populations.
The author cites Sorenson & Telles (1991) study that found similar
rates of domestic violence between European Americans and Mexican Americans.
Root also points out that a consistent finding in several studies reviewing
the effects of specific traumatic events was that the degree of trauma
was significantly different by ethnicity, with ethnic minority women
(i.e. Latinas and African Americans) reporting higher levels of health
consequences. The article provides ratios of women to men in terms of
psychiatric diagnosis following violent trauma and contains an interesting
discussion of barriers (structural, linguistic, economic, methodological,
conceptual, and cultural) to conducting research on violence against
women of color
Rouse, L. P. (1988). "Abuse in dating relationships: A comparison
of Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics." Journal of College Student
Development, 29, 312-319.
Incidence of experienced abused in dating was similar for Whites, Blacks,
and Hispanics in this college student sample. Sex differences and types
of abuse were also considered.
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